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Attention Deficit Disorder

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Attention Deficit Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or Attention deficit disorder  (ADD) is a mental disorder of the underdevelopment type. It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person’s age. ADHD makes it difficult for people to inhibit their spontaneous responses—responses that can involve everything from movement to speech to attentiveness. The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months.

In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.But in some cases many children with ADHD have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting.

Causes and risk factors

  • Genetics
  • Environment :
    • Alcohol intake during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders which can include ADHD or symptoms like it.
    • Children exposed to certain toxic substances, such as lead or polychlorinated biphenyls, may develop problems which resemble ADHD.
    • Exposure to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos and dialkyl phosphate
  • Society
    • ADHD can represent family dysfunction or a poor educational system rather than an individual problem.
  • Brain structure and growth
  • Chemical imbalance in brain
  • Low birth weight
  • Brain injuries

Signs and symptoms

  • They cant sit still
  • lack of concentration
  • who never seem to listen,
  • who don’t follow instructions no matter how clearly you present them,
  • who blurt out inappropriate comments at inappropriate times.
  • Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  • Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task
  • Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something enjoyable
  • Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments,
  • Daydream,
  • become easily confused
  • Struggle to follow instructions
  • Have trouble understanding minute details

Diagnosis

ADHD is diagnosed by an assessment of a person’s childhood behavioral and mental development, including ruling out the effects of drugs, medications and other medical or psychiatric problems as explanations for the symptoms

Treatment and Therapies

There is no cure for ADHD, treatments available can reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

Medication

Medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. It also improves physical coordination. The most common type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.” But be aware of some side effects

  • decreased appetite
  • sleep problems
  • tics (sudden, repetitive movements or sounds);
  • personality changes
  • increased anxiety and irritability
  • stomachaches
  • headaches

A few other ADHD medications are non-stimulants. These medications take longer to start working than stimulants

Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change his or her behavior.

Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors, to encourage behavior changes, and improve interactions with the patient.

Some tips

  • Keeping routines
  • Making lists for different tasks and activities
  • Using a calendar for scheduling events
  • Using reminder notes etc.,

In this video it is explained about ADHD clearly

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