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Fats and its types and impact on health

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Fats and its types and impact on health

Fats, also known as triglycerides. Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats are nutrients that give you energy. Fats have 9 calories in each gram. Fats help in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Saturated fat : A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acids all have single bonds. It is mostly in animal foods, such as milk, cheese, and meat. It is also known as solid fat. Saturated fat can raise your cholesterol. A healthy diet has less than 10% of daily calories from saturated fat.

Food source 

  • Milk
  • cheese
  • meat
  • coconut oil
  • palm oil
  • cocoa butter

Health concern

  • Saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol in your blood increase your risk of heart diseaseand stroke

Trans fat :  Trans fats are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.

Food source

  • Processed food
  • Snack foods
  • Cookies
  • Partially hydrogenated oils.

Health concern.

  • Trans fats raise your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and lower your good (HDL) cholesterol levels. Eating trans fats increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
  • It’s also associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease:
  • Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gain and abdominal fat, despite a similar caloric intake results in obesity
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Infertility in women
  • Behavioral irritability and aggression
  • Diminished memory

Unsaturated fat : An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain.  It is mostly in oils from plants.

  • Mono saturated fats :-  A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond,
  • Poly saturated fat :A fat molecule is poly saturated if it contains more than one double bond.
    • Omega 3 fatty acid
    • Omega 6 fatty acid

Food source

  • avocado,
  • nuts,
  • vegetable oils,
  • safflower oil,
  • sunflower oil,
  • sesame oil,
  • soybean oil,
  • corn oil
  • Salmon, anchovies,
  • herring, sardines,
  • Pacific oysters,
  • trout,
  • Atlantic mackere etc.,

Foods made up mostly of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature, such as olive oil, safflower oil, peanut oil and corn oil.

Fish high in omega-3 fatty acids include salmon, tuna, trout, mackerel, sardines and herring. Plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed (ground), oils (canola, flaxseed, soybean), and nuts and other seeds (walnuts, butternuts and sunflower).

Health concern

  • Eating foods that are high in monounsaturated fats may help lower your “bad” LDL cholesterol.
  • fatty acids may benefit insulin levels and blood sugar control, which can be especially helpful if you have type 2 diabetes.

 

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