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Gout

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Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint usually a big toe.  It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. Any part of your body can be affected by this problem. It can be treated easily but over time, they can harm joints, tendons, and other tissues. Gout is most common in men.

Causes

Pain and inflammation occur when too much uric acid crystallises and deposits in the joints. It is the condition where uric acid levels in blood are too high, and thus uric acid may form hard crystals in joints which results in pain

And some times it may caused due to

  • Genetics
  • Medical conditions such as . Metabolic syndrome, a combination of abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and abnormal lipid levels
    • lead poisoning,
    • kidney failure,
    • hemolytic anemia,
    • psoriasis,
    • solid organ transplants and
    • myeloproliferative disorders such as
    • polycythemia.
  • Medications like Diuretics, niacin, aspirin etc.,

Risk factors associated with gout are 

  • eating a lot of meat,
  • drinking a lot of beer,
  • overweight
  • water pills

Symptoms regarding gout are

  • Joint pain
  • Swelling (especially in night time)
  • Redness
  • tenderness
  • Sharp pain the toe

Diagnosis

Diagnosis mainly based on the symptoms

  • Fluid sample collection from joints to look for uric acid crystals called Synovial fluid analysis
  • X-rays
  • Blood tests  to measure the amount of uric acid in your blood.

Treatment

Basic treatment for this are to settle the symptoms of an acute attack while repeated attacks can be prevented by medications that reduce serum uric acid levels.

NSAIDs are the usual first-line treatment for gout, where as Colchicine is an alternative for those unable to tolerate NSAIDs. Steroids like Glucocorticoids have been found to be as effective as NSAIDsLong term medications are not recommended until a person has had two attacks of gout.

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