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Know about Tuberculosis

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Know about Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.It is the contiguous which hampers the smooth functioning of lungs.

Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those infected.

Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze

  • TB infecting the bones can lead to spinal pain and joint destruction
  • TB infecting the brain can cause meningitis
  • TB infecting the liver and kidneys can impair their waste filtration functions and lead to blood in the urine
  • TB infecting the heart can impair the heart’s ability to pump blood

Symptoms:

Unfortunately it shows no symptoms in starting stage it show symptoms only in advanced state

  • chronic cough with blood-containing sputum
  • fever
  • night sweats
  • lose of energy
  • wet cought
  • weight loss
  • loss of apetite
  • chills
  • some times nail clubbing

Causes

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium causes TB, It is a small, aerobic, nonmotile bacillus

Risk factor of tuberculosis mainly HIV/AIDS, Smoking. Tuberculosis is closely linked to both overcrowding and malnutrition.

Transmission

  • People with active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, sing, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.5 to 5.0 µm in diameter. A single sneeze can release up to 40,000 droplets. Each one of these droplets may transmit the disease

Diagnosis methods : CXR, culture, tuberculin skin test

Prevention : Some general measures can be taken to prevent the spread of active TB.

  • Wear a mask and cover the mouth and nose
  • Keep away from tuberculosis patient.

TB Vaccine, BCG injections are given to children in order to vaccinate them against tuberculosis.

Treatment : Antibiotics,  The two antibiotics most commonly used are isoniazid and rifampicin, and treatments can be prolonged, taking several months.

 

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