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Know about Urolithiasis

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Know about Urolithiasis

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. Unlike the heart or lungs, they possess no overtly moving structures. They filter the blood in order to make urine, to release and retain water, and to remove waste/Nitrogen (The excretory system). They also control the ion concentrations and acid-base balance of the blood. Each kidney feeds urine into the bladder by means of a tube known as the ureter. They are rough 11 centimeters (4.3 in) in length. Kidney’s clear the impurities from the blood, Crystallization of minerals present in urine leads to Kidney stones.

Kidney stone disease, also known as Urolithiasis. It is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.  It can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen depending on the size of the stone. Calcium stones makeup about 90% of all stones.

Causes of kidney stones

  • High dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup, oxalate, grapefruit juice, and apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.
  • High level of calcium in the urine, which is one of the most frequent kidney stone causes.
  • Uric acid stones are formed when one follows a high protein diet without consuming enough of fluids.
  • Struvite stones are often formed due to an infection in the urinary tract.
  • Calcium stones are formed due to certain metabolic disorders, dietary intake or high doses of vitamin D

Symptoms of Kidney stones

  • Sever pain in the side, back and below the ribs.
  • Pain in lower abdomen area
  • Feels pain while urination
  • Cloudy and foul smell  of urination
  • Intensity of pain fluctuates
  • vomiting or nausea feeling
  • one may feel fever and chills if the infection persists.
  • Blood urine

Similar conditions are Abdominal aortic aneurysm, diverticulitis, appendicitis, pyelonephritis

Diagnosis :

  • Based on symptoms,
  • Urine testing,
  • Medical imaging

Treatment :

  • Pain medication,
  • extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy,
  • ureteroscopy,
  • percutaneous nephrolithotomy


  • Increasing total fluid intake to more than two liters per day of urine output.
  • Increasing citric acid intake which is rich in lemon or lime juice is the richest natural source.
  • Moderate calcium intake and Limiting sodium intake
  • Avoidance of large doses of supplemental vitamin C
  • Limiting animal protein intake to no more than two meals daily
  • Limiting consumption of phosphoric acid rich cola soft drinks

In the following video you can see some home remedies to dissolve and remove kidney stones

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