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Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine has a sideways curve, this is the condition where the spine has an abnormal side to side curve. The curve is usually “S”- or “C”-shaped. Degree of curve is stable in some case, while in others it increases over time. Mild scoliosis does not typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere.

Causes of Scoliosis

It may be caused due to  genetic and environmental factors , but in some cases scoliosis may be present during birth time.

Birth defects are

  • Asymmetric disc degeneration
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Paralysis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Osteoporosis
  • Spinal fractures

During childhood, the spine curve usually becomes worse during periods of rapid growth. (Over weight of school bag and position of over weighted school bag may results in Scoliosis)

It can also occur due to another condition such as muscles spasms, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, and tumors such as neurofibromatosis.

About 65% of scoliosis cases are idiopathic (An idiopathy is any disease with unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin), about 15% are congenital (A congenital disorder, also known as birth defect) and about 10% are secondary to a neuromuscular disease.

Symptoms ans signs of Scoliosis

  • Respiratory or cardiac problems in severe cases
  • Constipation due to curvature causing “tightening” of stomach, intestines, etc.
  • Painful menstruation
  • It can cause problems with posture, walking and backpain
  • signs of scoliosis Uneven musculature, Uneven hips, arms or leg lengths, slow nerve action, Calcium deposits in the cartilage endplate and sometimes in the disc itself, Rib prominence

People who have reached skeletal maturity are less likely to have a worsening case. Some severe cases of scoliosis can lead to diminishing lung capacity, pressure exerted on the heart, and restricted physical activities


Plain X-rays can confirm the diagnosis of scoliosis and reveal the severity of the spinal curvature. If a doctor suspects that an underlying condition — such as a tumor — is causing the scoliosis, he or she may recommend additional imaging tests, such as an MRI.

In some cases, the curve progresses and begins to cause symptoms in adulthood. In other cases, it is not diagnosed until adulthood.

Treatment or management

The traditional medical management of scoliosis is complex and is determined by the severity of the curvature and skeletal maturity

The conventional options for children and adolescents are:

  1. Observation
  2. Bracing
  3. Surgery
    • Surgical procedure for adolescents if :
      • brace is not working
      • brace is not an option

For adults, treatment usually focuses on relieving any pain:

  1. Painkilling medication
  2. Bracing
  3. Surgery
    • Surgical procedure for adults if :
      • Numbness or weakness in legs
      • Worse back pain not improved by non surgical treatments.

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