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Sleep disorders overview

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Sleep disorders overview

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person. Sleep disruption may be caused due to many issues like teeth grinding or bruxism, night terrors etc.,

Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders and sleeping sickness, Narcolepsy, Sleep disordered breathing, Snoring etc., . If a person suffers from difficulty falling asleep without any reason are called insomnia.

Some common sleep disorders include

  • sleep apnea :- It is the condition where stops in breathing during sleep,
  • Hypopnea syndrome;- It is the condition where abnormally shallow breathing or slow respiratory rate while sleeping.
  • Bruxism:- It is the condition where involuntarily grinding or clenching of the teeth while sleeping.
  • Catathrenia:- It is the condition where  nocturnal groaning during prolonged exhalation.
  • Restless legs syndrome (RLS):- It is the condition where  an irresistible urge to move legs. RLS sufferers often also have PLMD.
  • narcolepsy and hypersomnia :- It is the condition where excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times,
  • cataplexy ;- It is the condition where sudden and transient loss of muscle tone while awake,
  • sleeping sickness :- It is the condition where disruption of sleep cycle due to infection.
  • Sleep paralysis, characterized by temporary paralysis of the body shortly before or after sleep
  • Along with some other disorders are sleep deprivation, sleepwalking, night terrors and bed wetting etc., are common.

The amount of sleep a person needs based on age and many factors are

  • Infants require about 12-15 hours sleep a  day
  • Toddlers require about 11-14 hours sleep a day.
  • Pre-school children require 10-13 hours sleep a day.
  • School-age children require 9-11 hours sleep a day.
  • Teenagers need about 8.5-9.5 hours sleep on average.
  • Most adults need 7 to 9 hours a night for the best amount of sleep, although some people may need as few as 6 hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep each day.
  • Women in the first 3 months of pregnancy often need several more hours of sleep than usual.

Consequences of sleep disorders

  • Depression
  • Stress
  • Weakening of immune system
  • tiredness
  • lack of concentration
  • Increase in perception of pain
  • Memory problem

Treatment

  • Behavioral and psychotherapeutic treatment
  • Rehabilitation and management
  • Medication
  • Other somatic treatment

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