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Thrombocytopenia

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Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia is a disorder where thrombocytes or platelets are abnormally low in the blood. ( Platelets are cells in your blood that stick together to help it clot, Platelets are made in your bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside your bones.). A normal human platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Common definition of thrombocytopenia platelet count below 50,000 per the where condition requires emergency treatment.

Symptoms

Thrombocytopenia usually has no symptoms

  • External bleeding such as nosebleeds, and/or bleeding gums can be seen some cases.
  • longer menstrual periods
  • Bruising,
  • Blood in your urine or bowel movement
  • Headaches
  • Red or purple spots on skin called petechiae

Causes of Thrombocytopenia : Thrombocytopenia can be inherited or acquired.

  • Dehydration
  • Vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency
  • Leukemia
  • Decreased production of thrombopoietin by the liver
  • Sepsis,
  • Leptospirosis
  • Hereditary syndromes like Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, Fanconi anemia, May-Hegglin anomaly, Alport syndrome, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome
  • aplastic anemia
  • Due to chickenpox, mumps, rubella, HIV, or Epstein-Barr virus
  • Chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer patients
  • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • lupus or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Medications like Valproic acid, Methotrexate, Carboplatin, Interferon,
  • H2 blockers and proton-pump inhibitors
  • Some times Snakebite
  • Niacin toxicity etc.,

Diagnosis

Lab tests like

  • full blood count,
  • liver enzymes,
  • kidney function,
  • vitamin B12 levels,
  • folic acid levels,
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate,
  • peripheral blood smear
  • bone marrow biopsy is used problem is undetermined

Treatment

  • Treatment is guided by the severity and specific cause of the disease
  • For severe thrombocytopenia doctor may recommend
    • Steroid medicines to stop destroying platelets
    • Blood transfusion
    • Surgery to remove your spleen
  • To prevent bleeding
    • To avoid bleeding Use soft brush
    • Avoid medicines like aspirin and ibuprofen
    • Limit alcohol drinking
    • prevent injuries

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