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Ulcerative colitis Overview

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Ulcerative colitis Overview

Ulcerative colitis (UC)  are inflammatory bowel diseases and this is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers in the lining of  Largest intestine (colon) and rectum. But usually effect lower section of colon which is called sigmoid colon or it can effect entire colon. This can effect any age of the people.

Signs and symptoms of Ulcerative colitis

Symptoms Ulcerative colitis come on slowly and can range from mild to severe. In most of the conditions symptoms come and go, so symptoms may disappear in time by time within month or years. About 10% of people with ulcerative colitis have symptoms all the time.

  • The primary symptom of active disease is abdominal pain and diarrhea mixed with blood.
  • Some other symptoms like
    • weight loss
    • fever
    • anemia
    • Belly cramps
    • loss of appetite
  • Disease can also cause some other medical conditions like joint pain, eye problem, liver disease, mega colon, colon cancer.
  • Patients with ulcerative colitis can occasionally have aphthous ulcers involving the tongue, lips, palate and pharynx

Causes

  • Causes of Ulcerative colitis are unknown some theories say that  immune system dysfunction, genetics, changes in the normal gut bacteria, and environmental factors.
  • Some assumptions say that it may be due to overactive of intestinal bacteria.
  • May be because of Genetics
  • Lifestyle

Diagnosis

  • Ulcerative colitis can affect people of any age. But most people who have it are diagnosed before the age of 30.
  • Diagnosis is typically by colonoscopy with tissue biopsies. It is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) along with Crohn’s disease and microscopic colitis.
  • Blood tests, are done to look for infection or inflammation.
  • Stool sample testing to look for blood, infection, and white blood cells.
  • Blood count is done to check for anemia
  • And some other tests are done to diagnosis the disease and to diagnose some other medical conditions.

Treatment

  • If the condition is mild medicines such as Imodium are used to control diarrhea.
  • To stop or reduce symptoms and to prevent flare ups use medicines like aminosalicylates, steroid medicines are used.
  •  5-ASA drugs such as sulfasalazine and mesalazine are used to treat UC.

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